「もっともっと欲しい」の貪欲の経済から、「足るを知る」知足の経済へ。さらにいのちを尊重する「持続の経済」へ。日本は幸せをとりもどすことができるでしょうか、考え、提言し、みなさんと語り合いたいと思います。(京都・龍安寺の石庭)
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Buddhism and World Peace(Ⅱ)
The 2nd Nepal‐Japan International Buddhist Symposium on “Buddhism's Contribution for World Peace” was held from the viewpoint of the Buddhist Economics in Nepal, December, 2006. The main panelists of the symposium are members of Society for Buddhist Studies, Nepal and Buddhist Economy Forum, Japan.
The paper presentation by K.Yasuhara and the Nepal Declaration are reported in “Buddhism and World Peace(Ⅰ)”. The Paper presentaions by other three panelists in “Buddhism and World Peace(Ⅱ)” are as follows:


<1>The paper of Dr. Naresh Man Bajracharya, who is a member of Society for Buddhist Studies of Nepal, is as follows(full text):

Understanding the Law of Dependent Origination
for World Peace


Dr. Naresh Man Bajracharya (Ph.D.)
Head
Central Department of Buddhist Studies, Tribhuvan Unjversity, Nepal

Peace:
Peace is a state of mind. When mind experiences pleasure then peace prevails. Tranquility, Calm, Silence, Stillness, Serenity and Harmony are the synonyms of Peace Pleasure arises from the satisfaction.

Peace is the ultimate goal of every Human being, Nation and World alike. Peace can be judged at three different levels. They are Personal Peace, National Peace and International Peace or World Peace.

i. Personal Peace:
Personal peace is concerned with the peace, attained by a person through certain means. The means may or may not be favorable to others but it does not matter. The peace would be limited within the very personal level and this could be momentary or of longer duration. In other words, it can be said that an individual feels satisfaction with the fulfillment of his individual wish. This satisfaction leads him/her to the state of peace.

ii. National Peace:
Good economic position, sound health, high literacy rate, satisfactory social security and national security, prevalence of human rights, gender equality, job opportunity, harmony among the all castes, ethnic groups, religions etc. lead a nation to the state of peace at national level. National peace can prevail with the development of a nation in all respects. National peace is concerned with the welfare of a nation in totality. Peace in society is a part of national peace.

iii. International Peace or World Peace:
In general, International peace means prevalence of harmony between countries and guarantee of no attack from neighboring countries. The main cause for the disruption of this world peace has been thought to be the WAR but war is neither the cause nor war can be the solution for peace, to my mind.

The development of a nation in all respects brings peace in a nation. Likewise development of all nations in all respects introduces actual peace in the world. The development of a nation or world in all respects depends on the politics of the nation or the world. Politics is the science of policy making and serving people in term of ruling a nation. Vision of the politicians is the main cause for the development or destruction of a nation or world. It is not universal that all the politicians possess right vision. Some politician may possess wrong vision intentionally or through ignorance.

The right vision of the politicians lead the nation or world to the state of development of a nation or world in all respects, while the wrong vision of politicians lead in the state to destruction of the nation or world. It is therefore; I assume that "right political vision" is the root cause for the world peace.

Buddhism:
Buddhism is a man-made religion that is why it deals with human behaviors; human needs, wants, problem and finally the solution. Beyond doubt, Buddhism deals also with the welfare of all kinds of creatures. Identification of problems, finding out the cause behind the problem, thinking of possibility of solution to eradicate the problem and pointing out the way to solution of problem are the steps of thinking process of Buddhist philosophy. To be engaged in welfare for other is another important part of Buddhism.

It is well known fact that Buddhism is the rationalism vs. superstition and emotional response. Buddhist thinking process and thoughts are found to be more scientific by modern scholars. It is also accepted universally that Buddhism is a peace loving religion.

In Buddhism there are a lot of philosophical principles and practices that could be instrumental for bringing world peace. Among those I would like to highlight only one philosophical principle i.e. "the Law of Dependent Origination"*1 for world peace. This law is the main foundation for basic to higher Buddhist philosophies. Buddha said "who understands the law of dependent origination, he visualizes the Buddha in reality".


The Law of Dependent Origination:
According to Buddhist view every entity-both living and non-living being- come into existence depending on other. Similarly, extinction of each takes place in the absent of other. In other words, existence of one entity causes for the existence of other entity. Similarly, extinction one entity causes for the extinction of other entity.

The law of dependent origination testified the following facts:
No body/no thing is perfect in itself/own self.
No body/ no thing is supreme power holder.
Everybody/everything possesses its value and importance.
Co-existence is the ultimate truth of the existence of world.
Therefore, One should/can not ignore or underestimate other.
One must respects others' existence.
Mutual respect is the long life of the world.

Based on the above-mentioned points it can be stated "mutual respect brings peace, while mutual underestimate brings conflict". For instance, in the past history of Nepalese politics one party accepts the existence of other parties only dramatically but not actually. Parties were busy in leg pulling policy for personal benefit rather than national benefit. This practice could be found within the party, which brought disintegration in the party. The policy of ignoring oppositions or neglecting others in terms of politics was widely practiced. As a result, political settlement could not take place in Nepal, thus people are suffered and sought after the peace.

In context to the present political situation on one hand each party seems to have actually accepted the existence of other parties, and then they became ready for table talk and were finally united. Even South Pole and North Pole met at the same platform and held "scholarly talk" They came to the summit-point of agreement for political settlement and which finally resulted in the signing of the "National Peace Agreement" on Nov. 21, 2006 at 8:29p.m. It would be a noteworthy to quote here a piece of interview of Prime Minister G.P. Koirala. He says " ...though Nepal is poor and backward, people of the land of Buddha had once again proved that they still had capacity to give message to the world about the ways of finding peace."
After the signing of the National peace treaty neighboring countries also started to take peace-breath. It is because the peace in Nepal has bearing for the peace in their country too.

On other hand the One, who ignored or underestimated others' existence, is now facing the uncertainty of its existence.

In the context of world whenever whichever countries tried to show its supremacy and acted against the existence of other countries then world faced turmoil. At present world too some countries have been trying to show their supremacy through war, nuclear test etc. This has brought dissatisfaction and turmoil among the countries, which are seeking peace.

Conclusive remarks:
The "Law Dependent of Origination", discovered by Sakyamuni Buddha is a scientific fact rather than a religious philosophy or belief. The law teaches us the fact that each depends on other and cause brings effect. It is therefore; can be assumed mutual respect brings peace, while mutual underestimation brings conflict. Here it can be pointed out that politicians must be aware of this scientific fact-the law of dependent origination-for world peace.


<2>The paper of Mr. Seigo Tsujii, who is a member of Buddhist Economy Forum of Japan, is as follows(summary):

Peace and Buddhism- From the historical viewpoint-

Seigo Tsujii
Lecturer, Obirin University

 Every religion hopes peace, based on desiring the spiritual and the practical peace in every adherent, besides the Buddhist. However, as you can appreciate well, historically and even today, religions have been often inclined to feel more concerned in violent behaviors including wars, than in devoting peace through expanding own mission by taught. The spiritual peace and identity for protecting each adherent, conversely speaking, may be risen friction among the adherents belong to other religious associations and sects, moreover, concerned with political and social elements, we may often observe, in reality, the confusion of peace.

Buddhism may be often called relatively wider peaceful religion in taught than other internationally wide religions. Surely, in the view of its missionary works to Asian areas, Buddhism has been pursuing to be familiar in associated with the native worships, traditional manners and customs, as a result, often induced to each native intents and interests, the defense of the country, the governance by different ethics, comparatively, without carrying the violence. However, this may not always follow that Buddhism may not be related with violence at all.

In our history, we had met radical movement between Buddhists group and administration., for example, in Edo period, Tokugawa adminisration had decided to set up special legal system, the Law to control Shrines and Temples. By establishing this legal system, the administration could indirectly turned to prohibit the faith of Christianity as well as firmly could protect Buddhists about 3 centuries to keep them in the control of the administration and support the policy. In World War Ⅱalso, under serious religious control by the government, some Buddhist sects group and leaders supported for the War .

In these historical situations, Buddhism has shown its reaffirmation for the historical importance toward violent movements. Thus, we need gaze carefully at present situation not only as society, but also as a individual, from the view point what and how we should contribute Peace towards future world. We can see vividly some significant and specific feature that Buddhism has continued to maintain the tolerance and the patience against violence for a long time.

First, Buddhism has been developed own taught and practice under the hard non-violence and also mainly by its composite shapes.
Secondly, we may deeply examine that Buddhism has been expanding its teaching in Asia regions, receiving deeply by its nature and mission without showing any vivid violent movement, by its universality in both its teaching and its practice towards all persons of understanding..
As you know, Buddha clearly taught us thought which still being alive in our life, such as Transienty , Fatanity,Buddha-store, Vanity(Sunya), Buddhist nature , Relief and the building of the land of Buddha by Buddha and Bodhi-sattva, through Enlightment (Nirvana) and spiritual control by everyone’s hard practice in each field. These teachings mentioned have been expanded beyond nations and deeply made people awakened sympathy. Besides these taught, the concept of Transmigration (Samsara) has been interested in deeply Japanese mind, in particular, being mutually impressive and fresh harmonized with our thought of our traditional Shinto , such as ancestor worship and requiem mass for our fore-fathers.
Thirdly, it is Sentient beings (Sattva) that Buddhism creates and stands for all to be characteristic for Peace. Sattva is called a general term of Human beings, Animals, and Gods. And, it is also our cycles of life, and, it is called the original elements of Five commandments(against murder, lust, theft, lying, and intemperance) ,and Affection in the teachings.

Everyday and everywhere, we see uncertain situation and issues against security and peace in many areas, and cannot but feel sense of threat, being caused by political, economical and social situations. As you may consider deeply, compared with past, it has expanded and increased more and harder than last decade. Under these trends, we are certainly so inquired what and how to do for pursuing peace as a simple worshipper, that it is important how we ourselves carefully see present, and think, and behave to solve present and promote Peace.
Whenever I remind of the above, often I recall myself some Buddha’s taught, to think of present world is in a hard chaotic states. Buddha taught in it as follows. ”There are 6 points you take precautions against the time you bring good friends, have honor, contribute the society, escape conflict, and finally enlighten peace.”
1.To think issues for affection.
2. To express words for affection.
3.To perform deeds for affection.
4.To share anything with your friends together whenever you could get.
5.To keep always carefully the moral and discipline is honored by the prudence.
6.To think and live always with the thoughts make your heart pure, happy, and in peace.

And, we, Japanese, still remember the word expressed by Late President of Sri Lanka ( Ceylon ) at the time of ceremony of signing of San Francisco Peace Treaty, 1951, quoting from “Dhammapada”, “Truly in this world, if we return a grudge with a grudge to compensate a grudge, a grudge never cease forever. A grudge ceased by giving up a grudge. This is eternal Truth.”
By expressing this clearly, President decided to give up requiring the fund for Ceylon’s compensation to Japan. Concluding my paper, I would ask your understanding, how we use our knowledge, what we can do, and what we should and must behave to meet and solve the theft against Peace as a Buddhist as well as a Worshipper of religion, harder than before toward tomorrow.


<3>The paper of Mr. Tri Ratna Manandhar, who is a member of Society for Buddhist Studies of Nepal, is as follows(summary):

Peace through Buddhist Ideal of Economic Development

Mr.Tri Ratna Manandhar
Lecturer, Tribhuvan University

Introduction
The discourses given by Buddha to different classes of people, to the people of different occupation, at different places if are studied, the stock of knowledge on different field could be gained. The main objective of delivering the discourse by Buddha was to make more people happy and welfare. So, Buddha had highlighted different aspect of the social life of human being, to make their life easy and happy.

Buddha’s inspiration for involving in economic activities
Buddha, in his 45 years of discourses, had given several teachings on economic development in micro and macro level. People generally tend to consider the Buddha’s teaching as an escape or withdrawal from active life, retiring into temple, cave or forest leading a lonely life off totally from the society. However it is clearly a misunderstanding to the teachings of Buddha. In fact one can find in the teachings of Buddha an inspiration to working hard for the economic development.

State’s responsibility for economic Development (macro level)
Buddha also had given several discourses on the responsibility of state to make economic development.
It is important duties of state to provide the opportunity of jobs, because people need job to earn money. It makes their life easier. Lack of job opportunity increases the unemployment problem which compels the unemployed to involve in evil works hampering both the society and the state. So, it is duty of the state to create sufficient job opportunity to overcome the evil deeds. So, Buddha stressed on providing more job opportunities to the people. According to him it is the responsibility of the state to manage job opportunities for the peoples according to their ability. It makes the people happy and brings peace in the society.
The capital given to entrepreneurs will promote the production and generate income making the country prosperous.
In this way Buddha has emphasized the obligation of state to give job opportunity for the people. The sufficient job opportunities only can make the people engaged in business.

Ethical practice in economic activities for making world peace
Nowadays in the name of economic development the people are also producing different types of liquor, drugs and selling these with handsome price and raising their standard of living.
The productions of different types of weapons are being increased by the developed countries for their economic development. Similarly there are so many product items available in the society that instead of giving advantage harm the consumer as cigarette, tobacco etc.
In this way economic activities performed in the certain corner of the world could produce several problems all over the world. Life of several people is being threatened in the name of economic development in certain part of the world. The health and wealth of the several people are being damaged by the so called economic activities by producing weapons, liquors, drugs, cigarette etc.

The economic activities which are pronounced with pride are lacking the ethical value. So, to prevent the world from further damage in the name of economic activities the ethical values are being compulsory to blend on it. Only then the people can live prosperously as well as peacefully. The prosperity without peace is meaningless.
In this context Buddha had said that economic security should go on arm in arm with spiritual values. Man should not deviate from the path of duty, rectitude and righteousness but should try to seek a balance between material and spiritual values

Previously the economists were not interested to include the normative aspect in economics. Even some economist as Robbins thought that the economics is a pure science and as such it is not concerned with right or wrong but many economists nowadays think that economic aspect cannot be disassociated with ethics and moral activities. Ethics is taking as the hand maid of economics. So, the section of welfare economics has been added to the modern economic theory which is trying to establish norms of behavioral activity. The term “Social rationally” of economic activity is to be interpreted as that activity which ensures optimum allocation of resources and therefore guarantees maximum social welfare.

In this regard Buddha from very beginning had alerted that the economic activities should not be done at the cost of the life & security. It should not exploit the right to live peacefully of the living beings. Buddha in the discourse on eight fold Nobel paths had delivered the teachings on right livelihood, prohibiting five types of economic activities in the society which eventually increase different types of problem and damage the peace and prosperity.

Those five prohibited economic activities are as follows:
1.Sattha vanija- Business of arms and lethal weapons
2.Mamsa vanija- Business of meat of animals
3.Satta vanija- Business of animals
4Majja vanija- Business of intoxicant i.e drugs etc. which damages thinking power of human
5.Visa vanija- Business of poison

It can be said that Buddha had identified the social problems arising in the society and its increment day by day due to the development of the wrong economic activity. The increment of such activities will increase the problems of world and vice versa. So, Buddha’s teachings should be heartedly taken by the modern economists in other to make the world economically sound, prosperous, safe and peaceful.

The social, national and international problems are increasing day by day due to the business of weapons. Easy availability of the weapons is adding to violence and murder in the society.
Now-a-days the developed countries are producing the modern sophisticated weapons in other to establish their supremacy over the world. The economies of such country are getting prosperous due to the export of weapons to the developing country. The weapon based economy is getting popular among such countries. Such countries import almost all daily necessary items from other countries while they focus their production and export in lethal weapons. The weapon based economy is making the world very fearful. Even some developing countries are making the nuclear weapons curtailing their budget to other necessary products. So, the fearful situation is arising day by day due to the increment of such destructive materials that could damage the world for several times.

The word “World Peace” is pronounced every time in the meeting of UNO(United Nations Organization) but participant countries could be found producing and exporting harmful weapons simultaneously as their whole economy is based on such harmful products. Until such double standard policy (hypocrisy) is exercised by the developed countries the world peace would be far away from the human society.
Similarly the economy of certain countries is based on the production of intoxicants. They produce liquors, drugs to export to other countries which can damage the health, wealth and morality of people.
In this way the economic development of the certain countries, without ethics and morality, is going up at the cost of high death rate of young people, at the cost of social evil and at the cost of destruction of society and whole world. This type of economic activities can not be accepted and admired in any way and should be timely checked. This is only possible if people are aware of the teachings of Buddha.

Saving-investing and Buddha’s teachings Economic development of an individual is also the outcome of saving done by him. Saving of earning enables the individual to invest that multiplies his income. So, multiplication of income is possible when the people are habitual of saving and investment. But human wants are unlimited and the resources are limited that cause difficulty for people to save the earning. Rather they think their income is inadequate even to fulfill their basic needs. But if we scrutinize the consumption pattern of each individual we can conclude that every person more or less expends their income for the unnecessary and harmful products, because of the habit, social pressure, tradition etc. The consumption of liquor, cigarette etc increases their expenses in worthless products, in one hand and in long run they exploit their health that again makes them to afford significant amount for medicine, doctor, nursing home etc.

In this respect Buddha also had given the teachings of 15 Charana (behaviors) that make the people happy. Among the 15 behavior (Charana), Bhojane Mattanyutta the meaning of which is to know the adequacy of consumption is one of them. Bhojane Mattanyutta gives the message of being alert in consumption of food. It tells people should consume only such amount of food for which they can afford and which makes them healthy. It suggests giving up the excess amount of food that causes them unhealthy and not using such food which is not concerned with the nutrition of the body. The people should eat to live but not live to eat.
If those teachings of Buddha are followed, the significant amount of income can be saved. People would be able to make investment that multiplies their income.

How much importance, the Buddha had given to saving and investment can be known by the following verse:
Evam Bhoge Samagamma, alamatto kule gihi
Catudha Vibhaja bhoge, save mitte bandhati
Ekena bhogan bunjettha, dvihi, kamman payojati
Chatuttha hidhapepya, apadasu vavissatitti

This means:
“Earning should be divided into four parts; one part should be used for consumption, two parts to retain for business and one part to keep as contingency.”
This verse gives the message of proper management of earning. Buddha by this verse had conveyed the people to retain and invest the significant portion of income. It also proves the Buddha was very much alert in saving the income for investment and eventually in the growth of economy of individual.

Conclusion
The economic development without moral and ethics does not confirm stability of the peace and prosperity. The development measured only by economic yard-stick can not guarantee the welfare of society. Instead, if economic activities are done without ethics and moral value, it creates problem in the world making more people unhappy, fearful, unsatisfied etc. The so called economic development without ethical values may be burden for the majority of the people. The ethical values can be induced in the economic activities by blending the Buddhist idea into economics theory. (The End)

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