「もっともっと欲しい」の貪欲の経済から、「足るを知る」知足の経済へ。さらにいのちを尊重する「持続の経済」へ。日本は幸せをとりもどすことができるでしょうか、考え、提言し、みなさんと語り合いたいと思います。(京都・龍安寺の石庭)
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Buddhism and World Peace(Ⅰ)

The 2nd Nepal‐Japan International Buddhist Symposium on “Buddhism's Contribution for World Peace” was held from the viewpoint of the Buddhist Economics in Nepal, December, 2006. The main panelists of the symposium are members of Society for Buddhist Studies, Nepal and Buddhist Economy Forum, Japan.

<1>Nepal Declaration was adopted at the symposium .The full text of the declaration is as follows:

NEPAL DECLARATION

The symposium on “Buddhism´s Contribution for World Peace” was successfully held on the occasion of 50th anniversary of Nepal Japan Diplomatic relation at Hotel Shanker, Kathmandu on 4th December, 2006 and at Hotel Nirvana, Bhairahawa on December 6, 2006 by the joint effort of Society for Buddhist Studies, Nepal and Buddhist Economy Forum, Japan. After listening and discussion on the Symposium paper, the participants hereby announce the following declaration.

1. War is neither the cause nor it can be the solution for peace. Mutual respect brings peace ,while mutual underestimation brings conflict. Buddha says the truth “Hatred does not cease by hating. Only loving kindness abolishes hatred.”

2. Co-existence of animate and inanimate beings, which is the ultimate truth for the existence of world in totality, is the central idea of Buddhism. Feelings of co-existence on the ground of the law of dependent origination, the foundation ofBuddhist philosophy, should be developed for world peace.

3. Human being cannot live without economic activities but various unfair economic activities are also being carried out which resulted many problems. Understanding economic activities, guided by teachings of Buddha.(Buddhist economics)would stop the prevailing unfair economic activities

4. Business of lethal weapons, liquors and drugs, which cause the damage of health, wealth, and morality of whole mankind, has declared as the wrong business in terms of wrong livelihood. Such wrong economic activities should be discouraged at the international level to promote global peace.

5. One of the main objectives of every religion is to make peace in the world. But ironically, its adherents are exercising friction among themselves and with other religions. In this way they are unknowingly assisting violence. Only the right understanding of the philosophy of religion can abolish violence.

6. The prevalence of racism and system of castes is also creating conflict in the world. In this context, Buhhda'steachings about "wise people" (Brahmins)"i.e." Man would be wise by wisedom, not by caste(and power)"would be helpful to stop the sectarian conflicts and conflict between the religions.

7. Basic Buddhist teachings would be helpful to the leaders of the world so that they can rightly design policies in order to administer the country and world peacefully. It is because peace is mandatory for actual development of all nations in the world. The development of a nation or world in all respects depends on the politics of the nation or the world. "Right political vision "is the root cause for the world peace while "wrong political vision"is root cause for turmoil.

It is hoped that these declarations will certainly be helpful in prevalence of World Peace .


<2>The speech of K.Yasuhara, who is a member of Buddhist Economy Forum of Japan, is as follows(full text).

Buddhism's Contribution for World Peace

Kazuo Yasuhara Professor emeritus
Ashikaga Institute of Technology

 It is my great honor to have an opportunity to speak at the 2nd Nepal‐Japan International Buddhist Symposium, Dec. 4(6).2006, Kathmandu(Lumbini, the birthplace of Buddha), Nepal.
First, I would emphasize that the 8th World Assembly of the World Conference of Religions for Peace was convened in Kyoto, Japan last August, gathering more than 800 religious leaders from over 100 countries and addressing the theme,“Confronting Violence and Advancing Shared Security.”
The key points of the Kyoto Declaration on Confronting Violence and Advancing Shared Security are as follows :
・We uphold the value of life manifest in human community and in all creation.
・Meeting in Japan, the nation that experienced the horrors of nuclear attacks, we commit ourselves to continue to struggle toward comprehensive nuclear disarmament and against the proliferation of arms.
・Today, we live in a world in the grip of many forms of violence . Violent conflicts take lives and destroy communities. Religious communities in particular must play a central role confronting violence in all its forms .
・We are determined to mobilize our religious communities to work together and with all sectors of society to stop war , struggle to build more just communities , foster education for justice and peace , eliminate poverty and advance sustainable development for future generations .

The Kyoto Declaration states that the threats of violence have become diverse and daily in the present world . The concrete examples are as follows :
・Today, genocide , state-sponsored repression , terrorism , and other forms of human rights abuse violate international law , target innocent civilians , and threaten the safety of many communities .
・Conflict-related disease , famine , displacement and environmental catastrophes constitute serious threats to life .
・Economic injustices leading to extreme poverty and hunger kill 50,000 people each day .
・Many corporations , especially at the multinational level , set their business interests without concern for values that foster sustainable development .
・Enviromental degradation and dwindling resources threaten our planet' s ability to sustain life .

Another important point of the Kyoto Declaration concerns with existing notions of security as follows : 
・National security does not necessarily ensure peace ; in fact , it often promotes violence and foments insecurity .

 Well , what should we do to confront diverse and usual violence , to protect our life , and to make peace on this earth ? From the viewpoint of Buddhist economics , I want to make some proposals as follows :

(1) About applications of the fundamental thoughts of Buddhist economics . Those are as follows :
・to shift from greed to self-sufficiency , called “Chisoku” or “Taruwoshiru”in Japanese , in  order to bring non-violence by self-sufficiency .
・to fulfill the primary injunction of Buddhist teaching : cease to kill or to steal , in order to build world peace .
・to construct simple economy without waste in order to lead to peace - oriented socio-economic  system .

Well, not only Buddha , but also ancient Chinese philosopher Lao -tse denied greed and said“To know when you have enough is to be rich.” We need to notice the report of“State of the World 2004”edited by the WorldWatch Institute of the U.S.says that it is necessary for consumers to learn this ancient wisdom . Now we know that such a way of thinking and living as restraint and moderation appeals to persons also in the U.S.
Furthermore, Lao-tse said that evils of wars were brought about by rulers' greed . I expect that Mr.George W. Bush , President of the United States of America, should learn a lot from this wisdom, because his thought of greed itself leads to military attack and occupation in Iraq .

What does it imply now to cease to kill lives or to steal others' property ? The implications of no killing are as follows :
・to have compassion for all lives including both human and non-human which co-exist in equal and mutual interdependence system .
・to cherish and preserve the natural environment .
・to refuse use of diverse violence including military forces .
The implications of no stealing are as follows :
・to stop greedy economic growth , which causes waste of material resources including energy.
・to stop holding military forces , which bring a huge waste of human, material , financial and natural value .
・to stop injuring human nature due to unemployment , which violates the human dignity and deprives people of their rights and opportunities to work .

Simple economy implies restraint and moderation to be substantially different from greedy economy. It also means a new type of economy to fulfill the rules of no killing or no stealing . In other words , it means neither to desire violence of war nor to waste much more oil .
Dr. E. F. Schumacher, German thinker who advocated Buddhist economics in 1973 , pointed out on the theme, “Simplicity and Non-violence ”in his writing : “Small is Beautiful”. It is as follows :
“Simplicity and non-violence are obviouely closely related. As physical resources are everywhere limited, people satisfying their needs by means of a modest use of resources are obviously less likely to be at each other's throats than people depending upon a high rate of use. Equally, people who live in highly self-sufficient local communities are less likely to get involved in large-scale violence than people whose existence depends on world-wide systems of trade.”

(2) About the global practices of thoughts of Buddhist economics . These are as follows :
・to abolish nuclear weapons completely, to reduce armament and to scrap military alliances in the world .
・to take the initiative in transforming the existing Japanese military forces into a global and unarmed Rescue- Party called “Chikyu-Kyuentai”in Japanese .
・to aim at shifting from the existing waste of oil - driven economy such as the U. S. and Japan to a new type of and saving of oil - oriented economy .

Well , Article 9 of the Constitution of Japan provides renunciation of war and demilitarization . Many Japanese people are proud of this Article 9 as a most valuable asset of human beings .
Buddha , if he were alive today , undoubtedly would preach :“Now you must devote yourselves to the globalization of the ideal of Article 9. If you neglect to do it, you can not practice compassion or give benefits to others , namely altruism . ”
Today , there are about thirty thousands nuclear bombs which are mainly under the control of five big powers : the U.S., U. K., France , Russia and China . We can not secure world peace without abandoning all these nuclear bombs .
Military forces cause increase of financial debts , deterioration of national life and vast waste of natural resources . Military alliances are likely to maneuver military actions under the pretext of world peace . What is worse , military forces are of course useless to the enormous threats and violence which all human beings get involved in nowadays : for examples, huge natural disasters and extreme weather events following global warming , destruction of natural environment , disease , poverty , famine on a global scale .
Nowadays, military forces produce all evil and no good . Therefore, I strongly hope the Rescue -Party of Japan to cope with such global and non-military threats as mentiond above .

Self-sufficiency , “Taruwoshiru”in Japanese , namely simplicity secures non-violence , but greed runs for violence . The typical example of greed and violence is the U. S. military actions in Iraq . The U.S.intends to manage the oil of Iraq , of which oil reserves rank second in the world . Japan also aims at ensuring stable supply of oil from the Middle Eastern countries by dispatching military forces to help Iraq to recover the political and social stability .
Both the U.S. and Japan give a top priority to maintain the existing waste of oil - driven economy. We can not shift from war and violence to peace and non-violence without transforming the waste of oil-driven economy into simple economy .

I believe in the teaching of Buddha that it is the best way to make peace and non-violence in the world by not greed but self-sufficiency . Thank You
(Other speeches are continued)
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新自由主義脱却への長期展望
安原先生 ご無沙汰申しあげております。安原先生のブログには毎回啓発されております。
しかし先生の論説を学ぶだけでは失礼だ、自分なりの見解をある程度まとめた上でコメントを入れるべきだと思い、コメント記入を避けておりました。
最近ようやく考えがまとまりかけて「日本再生長期展望の試論」というテーマでブログを書き始めております。
安原先生の教えなどにより、ブッシュアメリカの新自由主義は、市場原理主義・軍事優先主義・金融資本主義に支えられており、その路線に積極追随したのが小泉・竹中路線であり、その結果日本社会の安心・安全・倫理崩壊が発生したという認識は正しいと確信しております。
問題はそうした新自由主義から脱却するためのプロセスをどう設計するかです。
アメリカ大統領選挙でオバマ氏が当選し、アメリカも脱新自由主義を開始したかのように見えます。しかし毎日新聞では、「英国タイムズ紙の米国は欧州流社会民主主義に変身しない。デイリーテレグラフ紙の米国は然中道右派の国で、いずれ安全保障問題などで米国の国益と欧州のが衝突するだろう」という記事が紹介されています。オバマアメリカが短期に新自由主義から脱却できるとは思えません。
そうなると、アメリカから日本への協力要請(アフガン戦争に対する現状を超えたた協力・・・「軍事的協力」を含む・・・)や金融危機対策への資金協力など)はブッシュ時代以上に厳しいものになる恐れがあります。(小泉時代に進展した属国化は厳しい歴史的現実です)。
そしてまだ新自由主義脱却を考えていない自・公政権は、こうしたアメリカの要求に積極協力の姿勢で対応していくでしょう。
また、たとえ民主党中心の野党に政権交代があっても、急激な変化が期待できる状態では無いでしょう。
そして、北朝鮮の軍事政策や、中国の中華帝国的発展が存在します。
このような政治情勢の下で、憲法9条を守り非武装中立を願望しても、その願望は画に書いた餅でしかないのではないか?
また、福祉国家政策を目指し、社会保障政策を強化したくても軍事予算削減が当面困難なため財源がなく、社会保障政策予算はおざなりな増加に止まるのではないか?
新自由主義脱却を真剣に考えれば考えるほど、ため息が出ます。ましてEU型福祉国家づくりやスウエーデン型緑の福祉国家づくりは夢のまた夢に見えます。
しかし、5年先を見ればアメリカの力は弱化しEUの力が強まり、世界情勢も変化する可能性があります。
そこで、新自由主義脱却を3段階に分けて当面5年くらいの第一段階では、せめてアメリカに対する協力方針を積極支援姿勢から是々非々姿勢に転換出来る政権を作り出すことが重要だと思います。
アフガン戦争支援には軍事的支援は行わない、日米規制改革および競争政策イニシアチブ二基づく日本国への米国政府要望書に対する姿勢を是々非々の姿勢に転換する(近い将来こうした要望を廃止させる)。
せめてこの程度の半中立政策を実施できる政権を擁立し、その他のアメリカへの協力は妥協的に約束し、しかし誠実に実施するといった段階をつくりだすことを目標にすべきではないでしょうか?
そして新自由主義脱却の第二段階に入るためには、日本の有識者の大半が新自由主義思想の呪縛を自ら断ち切る必要があると思います。
この日本文化の21世紀的な再構築が迂遠なようで大切な鍵になると思います。





2008/11/13(木) 15:45:06 | URL | isoroku #-[ 編集]
「我信じる故に、我あり」
isorokuさん、読ませていただきました。

「我信じる故に、我あり」と考えます。それぞれが我が道を進む以外に良策はないように思います。

ただ一つ指摘できる点は、現実の政治、経済は段階的に順を追って変化していくとは限らない、ということです。
たとえば、ベルリンの壁の崩壊は予想を超えて急変しました。今回の世界金融危機も、いずれ発生するという予測は可能でも、それがいつになるかは現実の推移を見るほかありません。またこれほど深刻な事態になるとは、予想外だったと思います。

「半中立政策」という表現が出てきますが、目標として掲げるのはあくまで「中立政策」であって、その目標が現実には半端な結果しかもたらさないことはいくらでも起こり得るわけです。最初から「半」を目標にするのでは、結果として何も実現できないということにもなりかねません。

以上が私の印象記です。ご自愛を祈っております。
2008/11/14(金) 13:02:22 | URL | 安原和雄 #-[ 編集]
短期悲観長期楽観
安原先生ご丁寧なご返事をいただき有難うございました。
小生半中立政策を提言したのはあくまでも第一段階での目標であって、その中で日本の有識者の大半が新自由主義思想の呪縛を自ら断ち切り、アメリカの要望に本格的に是々非々を貫徹できるような社会風潮を作り出し、その後の国際情勢の変化によるアメリカの弱体化を待って、第二段階以降完全中立政策を目標にするという発想です。
安原先生の短期悲観長期楽観という視点に立った発想のつもりでした。
ただ事態の急変が起こる時代だよというご認識には納得できず、ここ数年では日米安保体制を抜本的に改革できる状況には残念ながらならないのではないかと思い、その間の対応方針を考えた次第です。
幕末で類推すれば、薩長連合以前の尊王倒幕路線では成功せず、その間の公武合体雄藩連合路線のような政策を考えた次第です。愚考ですが、公武合体雄藩連合路線こそが、実は薩長連合による尊王倒幕路線勝利の土壌を耕したのではないかと思えるのです。
天下国家論素人の思考ですから、今後ともご指導のほどお願い申しあげます。

2008/11/15(土) 11:16:27 | URL | #-[ 編集]
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